Hosting city emc2020: Kraków, the city of culture
The city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centers of Polish and the European academic, cultural, and artistic life. It was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1569. The academic traditions of the city are witnessed by the fact that Nicolaus Copernicus – the astronomer that formulated the heliocentric model of the universe – attended the Jagiellonian University (established in 1364).
In 1978, UNESCO approved the first ever sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Kraków’s Old Town. Kraków is classified as a global city by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, with the ranking of “high sufficiency”.
The downtown area (the Main Market Square, surrounded by a web of small streets and, eventually, the “Planty” park) is the city’s historical (and actual) center, with an untouched architecture, numerous museums, cultural events, restaurants, hotels, and an international crowd of visitors and tourists.
Kraków lies in the southern part of Poland, in a valley at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains, 219 m (719 ft) above sea level; half way between the Jurassic Rock Upland to the north, and the Tatra Mountains (100 km; 62 mi) to the south. The Tatra mountains form a natural border with Slovakia. Kraków is 230 km west from the border with Ukraine and 400 km east from the border with Germany.
In 2012, nearly nine million tourists visited Kraków (over a quarter of them came from abroad). Kraków has an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification system, one of the easternmost localities in Europe to have it. The city features a temperate climatic zone. In the summer, temperatures often exceed 25 °C (77 °F), and sometimes even 30 °C (86 °F).